On the subtle tuneability of cellulose hydrogels: implications for binding of biomolecules demonstrated for CBM 1†
Cellulose-based hydrogel materials prepared by regeneration from cellulose solutions in ionic liquids, or ionic liquid containing solvent mixtures (organic electrolyte solutions), are becoming widely used in a range of applications from tissue scaffolds to membrane ionic diodes. In all such applications knowledge of the nature of the hydrogel with regards to porosity (pore size and tortuosity) and material structure and surface properties (crystallinity and hydrophobicity) is critical. Here we report significant changes in hydrogel properties, based on the choice of cellulose raw material (α- or bacterial cellulose – with differing degree of polymerization) and regeneration solvent (methanol or water). Focus is on bioaffinity applications, but the findings have wide ramifications, including in biomedical applications and cellulose saccharification. Specifically, we report that the choice of cellulose and regeneration solvent influences the surface area accessible to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), CBM affinity for the cellulose material, and rate of migration through the hydrogel. By regenerating bacterial cellulose in water, a maximum accessible surface area of 33 m2 g−1 was achieved. However, the highest CBM migration rate, 1.76 μm2 min−1, was attained by regenerating α-cellulose in methanol, which also resulted in the maximum affinity of the biomolecule for the material. Thus, it is clear that if regenerated cellulose hydrogels are to be used as support materials in bioaffinity (or other) applications, a balance between accessible surface area and affinity, or migration rate, must be achieved.