Preparation and characterization of gel polymer electrolytes using poly(ionic liquids) and high lithium salt concentration ionic liquids†
Polymerized ionic liquids or poly(ionic liquids) (polyILs) have been considered as promising hosts for fabrication of gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) containing ionic liquids. In this work, a novel GPE based on a polyIL, poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PDADMA TFSI), and a high lithium-concentration phosphonium ionic liquid, trimethyl(isobutyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P111i4FSI), is prepared. The composition-dependent behaviour of the GPEs is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR). The effects of Al2O3 nano-particles on the polymer electrolyte properties are also discussed. It is shown that the introduction of high lithium-concentration ionic liquids into the polyIL can effectively decrease the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the resulting GPE, leading to improved ion dynamics and higher ionic conductivity. The Al2O3 nano-particles effectively enhanced the mechanical stability of the GPEs. Most importantly, although adding PDADMA TFSI to the ionic liquids decreases the diffusion coefficient of both Li+ and anions, a greater decrease in the anion diffusion is observed, resulting in a higher Li+ transport number (as evaluated by NMR) than that seen in the original ILs. Finally, a highly conductive free-standing GPE membrane is fabricated, and extremely stable lithium symmetrical cell performance is demonstrated.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Celebrating Excellence in Research: Women of Materials Science