Cost-effective hole transporting material for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells with fill factors up to 82%†
A new small molecule-based hole selective material (HSM), 4,4′,4′′-(7,7′,7′′-(5,5,10,10,15,15-hexahexyl-10,15-dihydro-5H-diindeno[1,2-a:1′,2′-c]fluorene-2,7,12-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine-7,5-diyl))tris(N,N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)aniline) (TRUX-E-T), has been developed by a facile synthesis with reduced cost. The highest occupied molecular orbital energy level and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of TRUX-E-T are −5.10 and −2.50 eV, respectively, making it a suitable HSM for lead iodide perovskite solar cells. TRUX-E-T can be smoothly deposited onto perovskite layers, enabling efficient perovskite solar cells with thin TRUX-E-T layers (∼50 nm), which helps cut the unit cost of the HSL used in PVSCs to approximately one-fortieth (1/40) of 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis (N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Additionally, TRUX-E-T exhibits hole mobilities as high as 2.47 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1, better than spiro-OMeTAD. As a result, our perovskite solar cells using TRUX-E-T have shown high fill factors up to 82%. The champion cell achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency of 18.35% (16.44%) when measured under reverse (forward) voltage scan under AM1.5 G 100 mW cm−2 illumination. Our un-encapsulated cells exhibited good stability in ambient air, maintaining 96.4% of their initial efficiency of 18.35% after 20 days of storage.