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Issue 12, 2017
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Phosphonium plastic crystal salt alloyed with a sodium salt as a solid-state electrolyte for sodium devices: phase behaviour and electrochemical performance

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Abstract

Mixtures of triisobutylmethylphosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1i444FSI) with different concentrations of NaFSI display composition-dependent phase behaviour with depression of the melting point upon NaFSI addition and suppression of crystallisation in the middle of the phase diagram and a higher-melting-point, NaFSI-rich mixed-phase region at compositions beyond 60 mol% NaFSI. Thermal treatment of the intermediate compositions results in complete crystallisation of the materials. All compositions showed high ionic conductivity (>10−5 S cm−1) at 20 °C, and Na symmetric cells containing high concentration of NaFSI (Na|[Na0.9(P1i444)0.1]FSI|Na) were cycled efficiently at 50 and 90 °C at 0.05 and 0.1 mA cm−2, respectively. Intermediate composition (Na|[Na0.6(P1i444)0.4]FSI|Na) cells were cycled at room temperature and 50 °C at 0.25 mA cm−2 with very low and stable cell polarisation (200 mV).

Graphical abstract: Phosphonium plastic crystal salt alloyed with a sodium salt as a solid-state electrolyte for sodium devices: phase behaviour and electrochemical performance

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
01 Dec 2016
Accepted
06 Feb 2017
First published
06 Feb 2017

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017,5, 5770-5780
Article type
Paper

Phosphonium plastic crystal salt alloyed with a sodium salt as a solid-state electrolyte for sodium devices: phase behaviour and electrochemical performance

F. Makhlooghiazad, P. C. Howlett, X. Wang, M. Hilder, D. R. MacFarlane, M. Armand and M. Forsyth, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 5770
DOI: 10.1039/C6TA10340E

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