Orientation and crystallization of regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) in alumina nanopores†
The orientation and crystallization of regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DDT) in different diameter nanopores were investigated. P3DDT nanowires were prepared by a melt–wetting nonporous alumina template with P3DDT melts. The microstructure of the nanowires was analyzed by micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, grazing incidence wide angle X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Although Form I modification prevails in all the nanowires, Form I crystals decrease and Form II crystals increase as the pore diameter decreases. The crystallites developed in the nanowires preferentially aligned with π–π stacking (b-axis) along the long axis of the wire and this orientation is marked as the wire diameter decreases. These results could provide guidance on designing polymeric nanomaterials for functional nanodevices in high performance organic photovoltaic cells, sensors, and electrodes.