Bimetallic catalysis for C–C and C–X coupling reactions
Bimetallic catalysis represents an alternative paradigm for coupling chemistry that complements the more traditional single-site catalysis approach. In this perspective, recent advances in bimetallic systems for catalytic C–C and C–X coupling reactions are reviewed. Behavior which complements that of established single-site catalysts is highlighted. Two major reaction classes are covered. First, generation of catalytic amounts of organometallic species of e.g. Cu, Au, or Ni capable of transmetallation to a Pd co-catalyst (or other traditional cross-coupling catalyst) has allowed important new C–C coupling technologies to emerge. Second, catalytic transformations involving binuclear bond-breaking and/or bond-forming steps, in some cases involving metal–metal bonds, represent a frontier area for C–C and C–X coupling processes.