How to make nanobiosensors: surface modification and characterisation of nanomaterials for biosensing applications
This report aims to provide the audience with a guideline for construction and characterisation of nanobiosensors that are based on widely used affinity probes including antibodies and aptamers and nanomaterials such as carbon-based nanomaterials, plasmonic nanomaterials and luminescent nanomaterials. The affinity probes and major methodologies that have been extensively used to make nanobiosensors, such as thiol–metal interactions, avidin–biotin interaction, π-interactions and EDC–NHS chemistry, were described with the most recent examples from the literature. Characterisation techniques that have been practised to validate nanoparticle surface modification with antibodies and aptamers, including gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism were described with examples. This report mainly covers the reports published between 2014 and 2017.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2017 Review articles