Molecular conformation and packing: their critical roles in the emission performance of mechanochromic fluorescence materials
Mechanochromic fluorescence (MCF) materials are a sort of smart material whose photophysical properties are sensitive to mechanical stimulation, such as photoluminescence color, fluorescence quantum yield and emission lifetime. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that these photophysical properties can be affected greatly by the molecular packing and conformation, enabling the rapid development of functional materials with mechanochromic fluorescence properties. In this review, we focus on MCF materials with distinct emission properties and various molecular arrangements, especially the inherent correlation between molecular packing modes and emissive behaviors. Many of the selected representative examples possess polymorphism, offering the possibility of exploring different emissions from the exact molecular packing in single crystals. Correspondingly, some remarks are made on the outlook for the next developments in MCF materials and the required thinking about the structure–packing–performance relationship.
- This article is part of the themed collections: 2017 Materials Chemistry Frontiers Review-type Articles, Aggregation-Induced Emission and MCF Editors’ Recommendation