Second-generation total synthesis of aplyronine A featuring Ni/Cr-mediated coupling reactions†
Second-generation total synthesis of aplyronine A, a potent antitumor marine macrolide, was achieved using Ni/Cr-mediated coupling reactions as key steps. The overall yield of the second-generation synthetic pathway of aplyronine A was 1.4%, obtained in 38 steps based on the longest linear sequence. Compared to our first-generation synthetic pathway of aplyronine A, the second-generation synthesis greatly improved both the yield and number of steps. In particular, we improved the stereoselectivity in the construction of the C13 stereogenic center and the C14–C15 (E)-trisubstituted double bond using the asymmetric Ni/Cr-mediated coupling reaction. Furthermore, we established efficient reaction conditions for the asymmetric Ni/Cr-mediated coupling reaction between the C21–C28 segment and C29–C34 segment. Thus, this coupling reaction proceeded with an equimolar ratio of each segment.