Strain and electric-field control of magnetism in supercrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle–BaTiO3 composites†
The manipulation of the magnetism of self-assembled iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) monolayers on top of BaTiO3 (BTO) single crystals is reported. We observe strain induced magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) as shown by measurements of both the magnetization and magneto-electric AC susceptibility (MEACS). The magnetization, coercivity, remanent magnetization and MEACS signal as a function of temperature show abrupt jumps at the BTO phase transition temperatures. Hereby the jump values are opposite for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirm a hexagonal close-packed supercrystalline order of the NP monolayers. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) experiments provide information about the layer structure of the sample. This work opens up viable possibilities for fabricating energy-efficient electronic devices by self-assembly techniques.