Nanoparticle-based optical sensor arrays
As in many other methods that have integrated nanoparticles (NPs), the chemical nose/tongue strategy has also progressed greatly since the entrance of NPs into this field. The fascinating tunable physicochemical properties of NPs have made them powerful candidates for array-based sensing platforms and have enabled the development of real-time, sensitive and portable systems that are able to target complex mixtures of analytes. In particular, the unique optical properties of NPs have a key role in providing promising array-based sensing approaches. This review will describe the main aspects and processes of most common NP-based optical sensor arrays. The fundamental steps in the design of a sensor array together with details of each step would be provided. The review begins with the principles of optical sensor arrays and presents the concept of cross-reactivity as the main criterion in the selection of sensing elements. Changes in the absorption and emission properties of the assembled sensing elements are categorized into two main classes of optical signals (colorimetric and fluorometric). Popular chemometric methods used for analyzing the data acquired by a sensor array have also been briefly introduced. On the basis of the objective and the desired application, different types of plasmonic and fluorescent NP that possess unique opto-physical properties have been presented as available choices in the design of sensing elements. The vast number of applications of NP-based optical sensor arrays published throughout the literature have then been reviewed according to their mechanism of interaction and the type of optical signal. Finally, the remaining challenges and future directions in this topic have been highlighted.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles