A dual-scale metal nanowire network transparent conductor for highly efficient and flexible organic light emitting diodes†
Although solution processed metal nanowire (NW) percolation networks are a strong candidate to replace commercial indium tin oxide, their performance is limited in thin film device applications due to reduced effective electrical areas arising from the dimple structure and percolative voids that single size metal NW percolation networks inevitably possess. Here, we present a transparent electrode based on a dual-scale silver nanowire (AgNW) percolation network embedded in a flexible substrate to demonstrate a significant enhancement in the effective electrical area by filling the large percolative voids present in a long/thick AgNW network with short/thin AgNWs. As a proof of concept, the performance enhancement of a flexible phosphorescent OLED is demonstrated with the dual-scale AgNW percolation network compared to the previous mono-scale AgNWs. Moreover, we report that mechanical and oxidative robustness, which are critical for flexible OLEDs, are greatly increased by embedding the dual-scale AgNW network in a resin layer.