A protein corona-enabled blood test for early cancer detection†
Pancreatic cancer is a very aggressive malignancy that is often diagnosed in the advanced stages, with the implication that long-term survivors are extremely rare. Thus, developing new methods for the early detection of pancreatic cancer is an urgent task for current research. To date, nanotechnology offers unprecedented opportunities for cancer therapeutics and diagnosis. The aim of this study is the development of a new pancreatic cancer diagnostic technology based on the exploitation of the nano-bio-interactions between nanoparticles and blood samples. In this study, blood samples from 20 pancreatic cancer patients and 5 patients without malignancy were allowed to interact with designed lipid nanoparticles, leading to the formation of a hard “protein corona” at the nanoparticle surface. After isolation, the protein patterns were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). We found that the protein corona of pancreatic cancer patients was much more enriched than that of healthy individuals. Statistical analysis of SDS-PAGE results allowed us to discriminate between healthy and pancreatic cancer patients with a total discriminate correctness rate of 88%.