Orange juice modulates proinflammatory cytokines after high-fat saturated meal consumption
We aimed to evaluate the postprandial secretion of inflammatory markers induced by SFA or MUFA high-fat meal consumption and whether orange juice intake could modulate this induction. This study included 55 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 33 participants received an SFA high-fat meal (≈1000 kcal, 37.6% of energy intake (E) from SFA) and 22 participants received an MUFA high-fat meal (≈1000 kcal, 56.3% E from MUFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of orange juice (test) or water (control). The plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and CRP were determined before (fasting) and 2, 3 and 5 hours after the test meal intake. The SFA high-fat meal induced a significant increase in AUC values (for TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-2 adjusted for baseline concentrations) in comparison with MUFA high-fat meal intervention. The results were independent of the drink which accompanied the meal (water or orange juice). Both IL-4 and IL-17A AUC values were significantly increased after an SFA high-fat meal intake, accompanied by water, but not by orange juice. In addition, these values were higher in relation to MUFA high-fat meal interventions. Also, IL-17A significantly increased at 3 h after an SFA high-fat meal intake accompanied by water, but not by orange juice. Overall, our conclusions indicate an anti-inflammatory effect of MUFA compared to SFA high-fat meal intake, while orange juice intake was able to mitigate the subclinical increase of postprandial inflammation, induced by SFA high-fat meal consumption, for a particular biomarker (IL-17A).