A novel quadruple-cation absorber for universal hysteresis elimination for high efficiency and stable perovskite solar cells
Organic–inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have made a striking breakthrough with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 22%. However, before moving to commercialization, the hysteresis of PSCs, characterized as an inconsistent photovoltaic conversion property at varied electric fields, should be eliminated for stable performance. Herein, we present a novel quadruple-cation perovskite absorber, KxCs0.05(FA0.85MA0.15)0.95Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 (labeled as KCsFAMA), with which the hysteresis in PSCs can be fully eliminated irrespective of the electron transportation layers. The incorporation of potassium intensively promotes the crystallization of the perovskite film with a grain size up to ∼1 μm, doubled compared to the K free counterparts. Further characterization revealed that a lower interface defect density, longer carrier lifetime and fast charge transportation have all made contributions to the hysteresis-free, stable and high PCE (20.56%) of the KCsFAMA devices. Moreover, we present a 6 × 6 cm2 sub-module with the KCsFAMA composition achieving a high efficiency of 15.76% without hysteresis. This result suggests that the quadruple-cation perovskite is a highly attractive candidate for future developments of efficient and stable PSC modules.