Membranes for artificial photosynthesis
Membrane-based architectures enable optimization of charge transport and electrochemical potential gradients in artificial photosynthesis. Spatial integration of the membrane-bound components reduces the impact of charge recombination and can reduce electrical resistances associated with ionic and electronic transport processes. In addition to eliminating the need for external electrical circuits, a membrane-based architecture also ensures separation of energetic products, thereby preventing the formation of potentially dangerous fuel/oxidant mixtures. Membrane-based structures may also be coupled with other devices, such as perovskite-based solar cells, to further benefit solar fuel production. This review discusses the key roles that various different types of membranes play in artificial photosynthetic systems.