The development of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes and conjugates for in vitro cellular and in vivo applications
Ruthenium(II) [Ru(II)] polypyridyl complexes have been the focus of intense investigations since work began exploring their supramolecular interactions with DNA. In recent years, there have been considerable efforts to translate this solution-based research into a biological environment with the intention of developing new classes of probes, luminescent imaging agents, therapeutics and theranostics. In only 10 years the field has expanded with diverse applications for these complexes as imaging agents and promising candidates for therapeutics. In light of these efforts this review exclusively focuses on the developments of these complexes in biological systems, both in cells and in vivo, and hopes to communicate to readers the diversity of applications within which these complexes have found use, as well as new insights gained along the way and challenges that researchers in this field still face.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Probes for in vitro and in vivo fluorescence imaging and Imaging Agents