Enzyme–MOF (metal–organic framework) composites
The ex vivo application of enzymes in various processes, especially via enzyme immobilization techniques, has been extensively studied in recent years in order to enhance the recyclability of enzymes, to minimize enzyme contamination in the product, and to explore novel horizons for enzymes in biomedical applications. Possessing remarkable amenability in structural design of the frameworks as well as almost unparalelled surface tunability, Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have been gaining popularity as candidates for enzyme immobilization platforms. Many MOF–enzyme composites have achieved unprecedented results, far outperforming free enzymes in many aspects. This review summarizes recent developments of MOF–enzyme composites with special emphasis on preparative techniques and the synergistic effects of enzymes and MOFs. The applications of MOF–enzyme composites, primarily in transferation, catalysis and sensing, are presented as well. The enhancement of enzymatic activity of the composites over free enzymes in biologically incompatible conditions is emphasized in many cases.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Metal-organic frameworks and porous polymers – current and future challenges