Two-dimensional nanomaterial-based field-effect transistors for chemical and biological sensing
Meeting the increasing demand for sensors with high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid detection presents many challenges. In the last decade, electronic sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) have been widely studied due to their high sensitivity, rapid detection, and simple test procedure. Among these sensors, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial-based FET sensors have been demonstrated with tremendous potential for the detection of a wide range of analytes which is attributed to the unique structural and electronic properties of 2D nanomaterials. This comprehensive review discusses the recent progress in graphene-, 2D transition metal dichalcogenide-, and 2D black phosphorus-based FET sensors, with an emphasis on rapid and low-concentration detection of gases, biomolecules, and water contaminants.