Metal–organic frameworks meet metal nanoparticles: synergistic effect for enhanced catalysis
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), established as a relatively new class of crystalline porous materials with high surface area, structural diversity, and tailorability, attract extensive interest and exhibit a variety of applications, especially in catalysis. Their permanent porosity enables their inherent superiority in confining guest species, particularly small metal nanoparticles (MNPs), for improved catalytic performance and/or the expansion of reaction scope. This is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field. In this review, we provide an overview of significant progress in the development of MNP/MOF composites, including various preparation strategies and characterization methods as well as catalytic applications. Special emphasis is placed on synergistic effects between the two components that result in an enhanced performance in heterogeneous catalysis. Finally, the prospects of MNP/MOF composites in catalysis and remaining issues in this field have been indicated.