Cavitation clusters in lipid systems – surface effects, local heating and streamer formation†
Cavitation clusters and streamers are characterised in lipid materials (specifically sunflower oil) and compared to water systems. The lipid systems, which are important in food processing, are studied with high-speed camera imaging, laser scattering and pressure measurements. In these oils, clusters formed at an aged (roughened) tip of the sound source (a piston like emitter, PLE) are shown to collapse with varied periodicity in relation to the drive amplitude employed. A distinct streamer (an area of increased flow emanating from the cavitation cluster) is seen in the lipid media which is collimated directly away from the tip of the PLE source whereas in water the cavitation plume is visually less distinct. The velocity of bubbles in the lipid streamer near the cluster on the order of 10 m s−1. Local heating effects, within the streamer, are detected using a dual thermocouple measurement at extended distances. Viscosity, temperature and the outgassing within the oils are suggested to play a key role in the streamer formation in these systems.