Focused electron beam based direct-write fabrication of graphene and amorphous carbon from oxo-functionalized graphene on silicon dioxide†
Controlled patterning of graphene is an important task towards device fabrication and thus is the focus of current research activities. Graphene oxide (GO) is a solution-processible precursor of graphene. It can be patterned by thermal processing. However, thermal processing of GO leads to decomposition and CO2 formation. Alternatively, focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) techniques can be used to pattern graphene with high spatial resolution. Based on this approach, we explore FEBIP of GO deposited on SiO2. Using oxo-functionalized graphene (oxo-G) with an in-plane lattice defect density of 1% we are able to image the electron beam-induced effects by scanning Raman microscopy for the first time. Depending on electron energy (2–30 keV) and doses (50–800 mC m−2) either reduction of GO or formation of permanent lattice defects occurs. This result reflects a step towards controlled FEBIP processing of oxo-G.