Uniform distribution of post-synthetic linker exchange in metal–organic frameworks revealed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used for the first time to study post-synthetic linker exchange (PSE) in metal–organic frameworks. RBS is a non-invasive method to quantify the amount of introduced linker, as well as providing a means for depth profiling in order to identify the preferred localization of the introduced linker. The exchange of benzenedicarboxylate (bdc) by similarly sized 2-iodobenzenedicarboxylate (I-bdc) proceeds considerably slower than migration of I-dbc through the UiO-66 crystal. Consequently, the I-bdc is found evenly distributed throughout the UiO-66 samples, even at very short PSE exposure times.