Personalized protein corona on nanoparticles and its clinical implications
It is now well understood that once in contact with biological fluids, nanoscale objects lose their original identity and acquire a new biological character, referred to as a protein corona. The protein corona changes many of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, including size, surface charge, and aggregation state. These changes, in turn, affect the biological fate of nanoparticles, including their pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy. It is progressively being accepted that even slight variations in the composition of a protein source (e.g., plasma and serum) can substantially change the composition of the corona formed on the surface of the exact same nanoparticles. Recently it has been shown that the protein corona is strongly affected by the patient's specific disease. Therefore, the same nanomaterial incubated with plasma proteins of patients with different pathologies adsorb protein coronas with different compositions, giving rise to the concept of personalized protein corona. Herein, we review this concept along with recent advances on the topic, with a particular focus on clinical relevance.