Poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)-based tongues discriminate fruit juices†
We describe a simple optoelectronic tongue, consisting of a positively charged, fluorescent poly(para-phenyleneethynylene), P2, that reacts to fruit juices, when employed at three different pH-values (pH 3, 7, 13). This minimal tongue identifies and discriminates 14 different commercially available apple juices, 6 different grape juices and 5 different black currant juices from each other. A similar, negatively charged fluorescent polymer, P1, also achieved discrimination, but the analyte concentration had to be increased by a factor of 50. A mixture of black currant juice and red grape juice is identified as red grape juice, for specific combinations of grape and black currant juices. A mixture of red and green grape juice passes as red grape juice in our sensing system when it contains more than 70% of red grape juice. The data were obtained by fluorescence quenching of the conjugated polymers and processed by linear discriminant analysis of the collected data.