Light-sensitive ruthenium complex-loaded cross-linked polymeric nanoassemblies for the treatment of cancer†
This work focuses on improving the efficacy of photoactivatable Ru complexes for photodynamic therapy by employing cross-linked nanoassemblies (CNAs) as a delivery approach. The effects of complex photoactivation, hydrophobicity, and solution ionic strength and pH on complex loading and release from CNAs were analyzed. The cell cytotoxicity of CNA formulations was similar to free Ru complexes despite reduced or eliminated DNA interactions. The release rate and the amount of each Ru complex released (%) varied inversely with complex hydrophobicity, while the effect of solution ionic strength was dependent on complex hydrophobicity. Premature release of two photoactivatable prodrugs prior to irradiation was believed to account for higher activity in cells studies compared to DNA interaction studies; however, for photostable 1O2 generator-loaded CNAs this cannot explain the high cytotoxicity and lack of DNA interactions because release was incomplete after 48 h. The cause remains unclear, but among other possibilities, accelerated release in a cell culture environment may be responsible.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2015 Journal of Materials Chemistry B Hot Papers