Nanostructured catalysts for electrochemical water splitting: current state and prospects
Hydrogen is an ideal candidate for the replacement of fossil fuels in the future due to zero emission of carbonaceous species during its utilization. Water electrolysis is a dependable link of primary renewable energy and stable hydrogen energy. In this work, the fundamentals of water electrolysis, current popular electrocatalysts developed for cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in liquid electrolyte water electrolysis are reviewed. The main HER catalysts include noble metals, non-noble metals and composites, noble metal-free alloys, metal carbides, chalcogenides, phosphides and metal-free materials while the OER catalysts are focused on efficient Co-based, Ni-based materials and layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials. The strategies to improve catalytic activity, long-term durability and endurance to electrochemical erosion are introduced. The main challenges and future prospects for the further development of electrodes for water electrolysis are discussed. It is expected to give guidance for the development of novel low-cost nanostructured electrocatalysts for electrochemical water splitting.
- This article is part of the themed collections: JMC A Editor’s choice collection: Recent advances in solar fuels and photocatalysis research and 2016 Journal of Materials Chemistry A Most Accessed Manuscripts