A miniature CSTR cascade for continuous flow of reactions containing solids†
Continuous handling of solids creates challenges for realizing continuous production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. We present a new miniature continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) cascade to handle solid-forming reactions in flow. Single-phase residence time distribution (RTD) measurements of the CSTR cascade reveal nearly ideal CSTR mixing behavior of the individual units. Consistency of experimental and predicted conversions of a Diels–Alder reaction further confirms the CSTR performance. Two solid-forming reactions, (i) glyoxal reacting with cyclohexylamine to form N,N′-dicyclohexylethylenediimine, (ii) sulfonylation of 2-octanol with methanesulfonyl chloride, demonstrate the ability of the reactor cascade to transport solid particles continuously for hours without significant signs of clogging.