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Issue 88, 2016, Issue in Progress
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Band and bonding characteristics of N2+ ion-doped graphene

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We report that the doping of energetic nitrogen cations (N2+) on graphene effectively controls the local N–C bonding structures and the π-band of graphene critically depending on ion energy Ek (100 eV ≤ Ek ≤ 500 eV) by using a combined study of photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. With increasing Ek, we find a phase transformation of the N–C bonding structures from a graphitic phase where nitrogen substitutes carbon to a pyridinic phase where nitrogen loses one of its bonding arms, with a critical energy Eck = 100 eV that separates the two phases. The N2+-induced changes in the π-band with varying Ek indicate an n-doping effect in the graphitic phase for Ek < Eck but a p-doping effect for the pyridinic graphene for Ek > Eck. We further show that one may control the electron charge density of graphene by two orders of magnitude by varying Ek of N2+ ions within the energy range adopted. Our DFT-based band calculations reproduce the distinct doping effects observed in the π-band of the N2+-doped graphene and provide an orbital origin of the different doping types. We thus demonstrate that the doping type and electron number density in the N2+ ion-doped SLG can be artificially fine-controlled by adjusting the kinetic energy of incoming N2+ ions.

Graphical abstract: Band and bonding characteristics of N2+ ion-doped graphene

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The article was received on 02 Aug 2016, accepted on 01 Sep 2016 and first published on 02 Sep 2016

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6RA19511C
RSC Adv., 2016,6, 84959-84964

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    Band and bonding characteristics of N2+ ion-doped graphene

    H. Park, S. Choi, P. Lee, J. Kim, M. Ryu, K. S. Kim and J. Chung, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 84959
    DOI: 10.1039/C6RA19511C

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