Fluid dynamics: an emerging route for the scalable production of graphene in the last five years
Bulk applications of graphene in fields such as advanced composites, conductive ink, and energy storage require cheap and scalable graphene. Fortunately, in the last decade, the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to obtain pristine graphene has emerged as a promising way to achieve massive production of graphene at high efficiency and low cost by utilizing a cheap and abundant graphite source and a variety of cost-effective exfoliation techniques. Though numerous exfoliation techniques are available, this article will highlight the recent progress in the fluid dynamics route, which has emerged in the last five years as a promising scalable and efficient method for graphene production. A focus is made on vortex fluidic devices and pressure- and mixer-driven fluid dynamics, with our perspectives on the latest progress, the exfoliation mechanisms, and some key issues that require further study in order to realize industrial applications.