Retracted Article: Creation of ultrasound and temperature-triggered bubble liposomes from economical precursors to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in cancer cells
In the present work, we are reporting the preparation of a new ultrasound responsive bubble generating liposome from some cost-effective precursors. The liposomes prepared using conventional precursors possess some limitations like low stability, relatively low drug encapsulation, drug release efficiency and they are costlier too. In this study, 1,3-ditetradecanamidopropan-2-yl-(2-hydroxyethyl)hydrogen phosphite (DPHP) and 2-((4-aminophenyl)dimethylammonio)ethyl-(1,3-dipalmitamidopropan-2-yl)phosphate (AEDP) were taken as the main precursors. Along with these, folic acid–cholesterol and fluorescein dye–cholesterol conjugates are used as tagging and fluorescence imaging agents. In addition to the thermo-responsive nature of liposomes, herein, bubble generation inside the liposome core (using ammonium bicarbonate, ABC) was used as a trigger for rapid and high dose delivery of an anti-cancer drug, i.e. curcumin. Owing to the hyperechogenic nature of the generated bubbles, the liposome was also used as a contrast agent in ultrasound imaging. To explore the applicability and potential of the bubble liposome as a drug carrier its drug encapsulation efficiency, content, drug release profiles and stability were studied. The cytocompatibility of the liposome was studied by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on three different cell lines (MCF 7, Hep G2 and HEK cell) and the cellular uptake of liposome by MCF 7 cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, the prepared bubble liposome holds great potential for efficient delivery of anticancer drugs with minimal cost, enhanced stability, long blood circulation time, good cytocompatibility, suitable drug release profile and a better replacement for the conventional liposomes.