All-optical study of tunable ultrafast spin dynamics in [Co/Pd]/NiFe systems: the role of spin-twist structure on Gilbert damping
We investigate optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in [Co(0.5 nm)/Pd(1 nm)]5/NiFe(t) exchange-spring samples with tilted perpendicular magnetic anisotropy using a time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer. The competition between the out-of-plane anisotropy of the hard layer, the in-plane anisotropy of the soft layer and the applied bias field reorganizes the spins in the soft layer, which are modified further with the variation in t. The spin-wave spectrum, the ultrafast demagnetization time, and the extracted damping coefficients – all depend on the spin distribution in the soft layer, while the latter two also depend on the spin–orbit coupling between the Co and Pd layers. The spin-wave spectra change from multimode to single-mode as t decreases. At the maximum field reached in this study, H = 2.5 kOe, the damping shows a nonmonotonic dependence on t with a minimum at t = 7.5 nm. For t < 7.5 nm, intrinsic effects dominate, whereas for t > 7.5 nm, extrinsic effects govern the damping mechanisms.