Protective effects of phyllanthin, a lignan from Phyllanthus amarus, against progression of high fat diet induced metabolic disturbances in mice
Evidence based studies have proved the efficacy of plant derived bioactives against lifestyle oriented disorders as they can be incorporated in to the diet or diet based supplements. Phyllanthin is one such lignan from Phyllanthus amarus as well as different Phyllanthus species. Phyllanthin was evaluated as a chronic intervention (12 weeks) in mice, at a daily dose of 2 and 4 mg kg−1 of body weight along with a lard based high fat diet (HFD). Phyllanthin protected against HFD induced weight gain and adiposity. Phyllanthin supplementation reduced mRNA expression of adipogenic genes and increased expression of lipolytic genes in white adipose tissue. Treatment also showed reduction in liver triglyceride accumulation. HFD induced serum lipid disturbances were found to be restored by phyllanthin. Treatment reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in HFD fed mice. Phyllanthin counteracted coexisting low grade inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and liver. Along with serum proinflammatory cytokines, expression of NF-κB and F4/80 was decreased by phyllanthin. Supplementation of phyllanthin accelerated glucose clearance along with alleviation of insulin resistance in terms of HOMA-IR. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 was elevated by phyllanthin in liver and adipose tissue. The present study confirmed the protective effects of phyllanthin against HFD induced metabolic changes. Daily consumption of phyllanthin in the diet as a nutraceutical can ameliorate the development of metabolic disorders.