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Issue 25, 2016
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Photonanomedicine: a convergence of photodynamic therapy and nanotechnology

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As clinical nanomedicine has emerged over the past two decades, phototherapeutic advancements using nanotechnology have also evolved and impacted disease management. Because of unique features attributable to the light activation process of molecules, photonanomedicine (PNM) holds significant promise as a personalized, image-guided therapeutic approach for cancer and non-cancer pathologies. The convergence of advanced photochemical therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and imaging modalities with sophisticated nanotechnologies is enabling the ongoing evolution of fundamental PNM formulations, such as Visudyne®, into progressive forward-looking platforms that integrate theranostics (therapeutics and diagnostics), molecular selectivity, the spatiotemporally controlled release of synergistic therapeutics, along with regulated, sustained drug dosing. Considering that the envisioned goal of these integrated platforms is proving to be realistic, this review will discuss how PNM has evolved over the years as a preclinical and clinical amalgamation of nanotechnology with PDT. The encouraging investigations that emphasize the potent synergy between photochemistry and nanotherapeutics, in addition to the growing realization of the value of these multi-faceted theranostic nanoplatforms, will assist in driving PNM formulations into mainstream oncological clinical practice as a necessary tool in the medical armamentarium.

Graphical abstract: Photonanomedicine: a convergence of photodynamic therapy and nanotechnology

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Article information

07 Dec 2015
03 Jun 2016
First published
20 Jun 2016

Nanoscale, 2016,8, 12471-12503
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

Photonanomedicine: a convergence of photodynamic therapy and nanotechnology

G. Obaid, M. Broekgaarden, A. Bulin, H. Huang, J. Kuriakose, J. Liu and T. Hasan, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 12471
DOI: 10.1039/C5NR08691D

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