Design, synthesis and applications of core–shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures
With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core–shell nanoparticles. Core–shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core–shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core–shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core–shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core–shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core–shell, hollow core–shell and rattle core–shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in catalysis, energy storage, sensing, and biomedicine are presented.