Recent progress in fabrication techniques of graphene nanoribbons
Graphene has been the focus of research since its isolation in 2004. However, the lack of a bandgap restricts its application in semiconductor industry in spite of its predicted extremely high carrier mobility (>250 000 cm2 V−1 s−1). Theoretical studies predict that a band gap will open in quasi-one-dimensional graphene ribbons, due to quantum confinement and edge effects. Consequently, many approaches to prepare GNRs have been developed. However, applications of GNRs require scalable and easy production with precise control of individual nanostructures. In this paper, we review strategies for fabrication of large-scale GNRs, with a particular focus on methods that control their alignments. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are compared, to suggest development directions in this research field.