A class of efficient short-chain fluorinated catanionic surfactants†
There have been many attempts to find suitable replacements for fluorinated surfactants due to problems related to their bioaccumulation and resistance to biodegradation. Meeting the exceptional performances of these compounds, however, remains largely an unaccomplished challenge. Currently, a solution might be found through the synthesis of new classes of fluorinated compounds that possess reduced environmental impact by following the recommended strategies for their greener and safer design. In this article we report a novel approach by designing a family of catanionic fluorinated surfactants that shows potential for improved degradation, good water solubility, and low Krafft points. Furthermore, these surfactants exhibit excellent fluorine efficiency and effectiveness of surface tension reduction.