Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 1, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Antimony recovery from the halophosphate fraction in lamp phosphor waste: a zero-waste approach

Author affiliations

Abstract

Antimony is becoming an increasingly critical element as the supply-demand gap is expected to exceed 10% over the period 2015–2020. Antimony production is primarily concentrated in China (90%) and as the industrial demand for this metal surges, attention has to turn towards the recovery of antimony from (industrial) waste residues and end-of-life products in order to guarantee a sustainable supply of antimony. Although lamp phosphor waste is usually considered as a source of rare earths, it also contains significant amounts of antimony in the form of the white halophosphate phosphor (Ca,Sr)5(PO4)3(Cl,F):Sb3+,Mn2+ (HALO). HALO phosphor readily dissolves in dilute acidic conditions, making antimony far more accessible than in the main production route which is the energy intensive processing of stibnite ore (Sb2S3). HALO makes up 50 wt% of the lamp phosphor waste, but it has been systematically overlooked and treated as an undesired residue in the efforts to recover rare earths from lamp phosphor waste. In this paper, the feasibility of antimony recovery is discussed and an efficient process is proposed. The HALO phosphor is first dissolved in dilute HCl at room temperature, followed by a selective extraction of antimony with the ionic liquid Aliquat® 336. The remaining leachate is valorized as apatite which is a feed for the phosphate and fertilizer industry. A zero-waste valorization approach was followed, meaning that no residue or waste was accepted and that all the elements were converted into useful products. This paper thus emphasizes the potential of lamp phosphor waste as a secondary source of antimony and describes a sustainable process to recover it. The process can be integrated in lamp phosphor recycling schemes aimed at recovering rare earths.

Graphical abstract: Antimony recovery from the halophosphate fraction in lamp phosphor waste: a zero-waste approach

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 29 Jul 2015, accepted on 14 Sep 2015 and first published on 14 Sep 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5GC01746G
Author version
available:
Download author version (PDF)
Citation: Green Chem., 2016,18, 176-185
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
  •   Request permissions

    Antimony recovery from the halophosphate fraction in lamp phosphor waste: a zero-waste approach

    D. Dupont and K. Binnemans, Green Chem., 2016, 18, 176
    DOI: 10.1039/C5GC01746G

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements