Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications
Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for researchers to understand that plants are cost-effective, sustainable and renewable platforms, and therefore, they are ideal sources for production of natural NPs. This critical review discusses significant recent developments pertaining to plant-derived nanostructures, their classes, and vital applications. The aim is to provide insight into the use of plants as bio-renewable, sustainable, diversified resources and as platforms for the production of useful nanostructures and NPs, with functions in various fields including medicine, industry, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals.