Sustainable CNT-enabled lithium-ion battery manufacturing: evaluating the tradeoffs†
A stochastic goal programming model is developed to aid decision making for CNT-enabled lithium-ion battery manufacturing production and capacity expansion, by considering the balance among economic growth, environmental and human health protection, and sustainability. In this model, sustainability indicators/metrics such as total non-renewable energy use, primary material intensity, the greenhouse gas intensity, as well as measures of worker safety and health and total production cost are considered objectives. Through consideration of a range of specified preferences or weights for economic and sustainable criteria and target values for decision variables, the model determines optimal/feasible values for production quantity, expansion plan, percentage of renewable energy use, percentage of secondary material use, and the extent of occupational safety control that minimize the deviations of these values from their desired respective targets. Results from the stochastic goal programming model provide insights to managers for decision making over a range of preferences on economic and sustainability considerations for CNT-enabled lithium-ion battery production.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Sustainable Nanotechnology Organization 2015