Highly efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells by solution-processed tin oxide†
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are one of the most promising lab-scale technologies to deliver inexpensive solar electricity. Low-temperature planar PSCs are particularly suited for large-scale manufacturing. Here, we propose a simple, solution-processed technological approach for depositing SnO2 layers. The use of these layers in planar PSCs yields a high stabilized power conversion efficiency close to 21%, exhibiting stable performance under real operating conditions for over 60 hours. In addition, this method yielded remarkable voltages of 1214 mV at a band gap of 1.62 eV (approaching the thermodynamic limit of 1.32 V) confirming the high selectivity of the solution-processed layers. PSCs aged under 1 sun illumination and maximum power point tracking showed a final PCE of 20.7% after ageing and dark storage, which is slightly higher than the original efficiency. This approach represents an advancement in the understanding of the role of electron selective layers on the efficiency and stability of PSCs. Therefore, the newly proposed approach constitutes a simple, scalable method paving the way for industrialization of perovskite solar cells.