1H-NMR fingerprinting of brown rice syrup as a common adulterant in honey†
Honey is often adulterated because of its high economic value and increasing consumption. Among the most common adulterants, brown rice syrup (B.R.S.) is relatively difficult to detect. We present here a simple and fast quantitative 1H-NMR method to identify adulteration of honey by brown rice syrup using the concentration conversion factor. The principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra of honey and B.R.S. showed a characteristic pattern at δH 5.39 for B.R.S. identification. Good linearity (r2 = 0.9713) was obtained between the % B.R.S. in honey and the integrated area of the peak at δH 5.39. With the newly developed method, we successfully quantified B.R.S. in two commercial honey samples at 22.3% and 37.3% with a precision of 0.1–1%. As a result, a simple, efficient and precise 1H-NMR method was developed to quantitatively identify the presence of B.R.S. in honey without any complicated sample preparation.