Isotope-filtered nD NMR spectroscopy of complex mixtures to unravel the molecular structures of phenolic compounds in tagged soil organic matter†
Unravelling structures of molecules contained in complex, chromatographically inseparable mixtures is a challenging task. Due to the number of overlapping resonances in NMR spectra of these mixtures, unambiguous chemical shift correlations attributable to individual molecules cannot be achieved and thus their structure determination is elusive by this technique. Placing a tag carrying an NMR active nucleus onto a subset of molecules enables (i) to eliminate signals from the non-tagged molecules, and (ii) to obtain a set of correlated chemical shifts and coupling constants belonging to a single molecular type. This approach provides an opportunity for structure determination without the need for compound separation. Focusing on the most abundant functional groups of natural organic matter molecules, the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups were converted into esters and ethers, respectively by introducing 13CH3O groups. A set of 13C-filtered nD NMR experiments was designed yielding structures/structural motives of tagged molecules. The relative sensitivity of these experiments was compared and a step-by-step guide how to use these experiments to analyse the structures of methylated phenolics is provided. The methods are illustrated using an operational fraction of soil organic matter, fulvic acid isolated from a Scottish peat bog. Analysis of 33 structures identified in this sample revealed a correlation between the position of the methoxy cross-peaks in the 1H, 13C HSQC spectra and the compound type. This information enables profiling of phenolic compounds in natural organic matter without the need to acquire a full set of experiments described here or access to high field cryoprobe NMR spectrometers.