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Issue 1, 2016
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Considering the chemical energy requirements of the tri-n-propylamine co-reactant pathways for the judicious design of new electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection systems

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Abstract

The introduction of a ‘co-reactant’ was a critical step in the evolution of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from a laboratory curiosity to a widely utilised detection system. In conjunction with a suitable electrochemiluminophore, the co-reactant enables generation of both the oxidised and reduced precursors to the emitting species at a single electrode potential, under the aqueous conditions required for most analytical applications. The most commonly used co-reactant is tri-n-propylamine (TPrA), which was developed for the classic tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ECL reagent. New electrochemiluminophores such as cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are also evaluated with this co-reactant. However, attaining the excited states in these systems can require much greater energy than that of tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), which has implications for the co-reactant reaction pathways. In this tutorial review, we describe a simple graphical approach to characterise the energetically feasible ECL pathways with TPrA, as a useful tool for the development of new ECL detection systems.

Graphical abstract: Considering the chemical energy requirements of the tri-n-propylamine co-reactant pathways for the judicious design of new electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection systems

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Jul 2015, accepted on 08 Oct 2015 and first published on 03 Nov 2015


Article type: Tutorial Review
DOI: 10.1039/C5AN01462J
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Analyst, 2016,141, 62-69
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    Considering the chemical energy requirements of the tri-n-propylamine co-reactant pathways for the judicious design of new electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection systems

    E. Kerr, E. H. Doeven, D. J. D. Wilson, C. F. Hogan and P. S. Francis, Analyst, 2016, 141, 62
    DOI: 10.1039/C5AN01462J

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