High performance all-small-molecule solar cells: engineering the nanomorphology via processing additives†
The use of small volumes of solvent additives (SAs) or little amounts of non-volatile additives is a processing approach that has been implemented in many high/record performing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). Here, the effects of six SA systems and a molecular additive di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) were studied with respect to the photovoltaic parameters of solution-processed all small molecule solar cells (all-SMSCs) based on the BDTT-S-TR:NIDCS-MO system. An effective strategy with binary additives has been employed in this all-SM system, where a small amount, 0.75 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) and 2 wt% DTBT were added to the casting solution. This efficient SA approach yielded the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.33%. The relevant additives facilitate phase separation in the nm domains and improve bulk transport as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements.