Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.


Issue 7, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Rapid perovskite formation by CH3NH2 gas-induced intercalation and reaction of PbI2

Author affiliations

Abstract

Solution processable perovskite solar cells traditionally use CH3NH3I solid powder as one of the two precursors that requires solvation into a solution and a spin-coating step; the resulting films need post-annealing (∼1 h) for complete conversion to CH3NH3PbI3. Here we describe for the first time the formation of stoichiometric perovskite in ambient air by exposing PbI2 films to a simple CH3NH2 gas precursor (as opposed to CH3NH3I solid powders). The reaction completes within a few seconds forming complete-coverage perovskite films with a roughness of 2 nm. The non-stoichiometric reaction produces Pb oxides as by-products, which are reconverted by further HI gas exposure. With combined measurements of the thin film crystal structure, chemical state, and absorption properties, we elucidate the chemical reaction mechanisms underlying these gas-induced processes. Fabricated solar cell devices show an efficiency of 15.3%, which remains almost the same after 133 days. Such a gas-induced reaction also enabled the successful preparation of high quality perovskite films with a size of 100 cm2.

Graphical abstract: Rapid perovskite formation by CH3NH2 gas-induced intercalation and reaction of PbI2

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Dec 2015
Accepted
21 Dec 2015
First published
21 Dec 2015

This article is Open Access

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016,4, 2494-2500
Article type
Paper

Rapid perovskite formation by CH3NH2 gas-induced intercalation and reaction of PbI2

S. R. Raga, L. K. Ono and Y. Qi, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 2494
DOI: 10.1039/C5TA10055K

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements