Impact of different alginate lyases on combined cellulase–lyase saccharification of brown seaweed†
Two bacterial polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7 alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.-) from Sphingomonas sp. (SALy) and Flavobacterium sp. (FALy), respectively, were selected for heterologous, monocomponent expression in Escherichia coli. The thermal stability, pH, and temperature reaction optima and substrate preferences of the enzymes on different alginate polymers were assessed and compared to those of a commercially available microbial alginate lyase (SigmALy). The optimal pH range for SALy was pH 5.5–7.0; for FALy and SigmALy it was pH 7.5. Reaction temperatures of 30–50 °C had no influence on the activity of any of the enzymes, but the thermal stability was reduced above 50 °C. The FALy enzyme preferred poly-mannuronic acid as substrate, but exhibited activity also on poly-guluronic acid, whereas the SALy had highest activity on poly-guluronic acid, and the SigmALy was active only on poly-guluronic acid. When applied together with a fungal cellulase preparation (Cellic®CTec2) at pH 6 and 40 °C on a glucan rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata the viscosity decreased in the initial minutes while measurable alginate degradation occurred primarily within the first 1–2 hours of reaction. Whereas FALy and SALy addition catalyzed degradation of more alginate in L. digitata than SigmALy addition, only the SigmAly enabled release of 90% of the available glucose within 8 hours of combined enzyme treatment. The level of mannuronic acid moieties released was inversely proportional to the glucose release, indicating that the degradation of mannuronic acid blocks inhibited cellulase catalyzed glucose release from L. digitata. Nevertheless, combined alginate lyase and cellulase treatment for 24 hours released all potential glucose regardless of the applied lyase. The enzymatic treatment moreover induced solubilization of sulfated fucoidan, whereas most of the nitrogen was recovered in the residual seaweed solids.