Nanoscale graphene coating on commercially pure titanium for accelerated bone regeneration†
Titanium (Ti) is one of the representative biocompatible metallic materials which has been widely exploited for various implants and bone replacements. Here, commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) was surface-modified with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for accelerated bone regeneration and osseointegration. Nanoscale RGO coating on CP Ti was clearly confirmed by SEM, AFM, EDS, XPS, HR-TEM and EELS. In addition, pre-osteoblast cells cultured on RGO-CP Ti showed higher cell viability and cell attachment than those on CP Ti. After confirmation of the drug loading capability of RGO-CP Ti, osteogenic dexamethasone loaded RGO-CP Ti (Dex/RGO-CP Ti) was implanted on calvarial bone defects in rats. Synchrotron X-ray imaging successfully visualized more effective bone regeneration on Dex/RGO-CP Ti than CP Ti and RGO-CP Ti after 8 weeks.