Abietane diterpenoids from Caryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq.
Twelve new diterpenes, caryopincaolide A–L (1–4, 11–12, 16–19, 27–28), together with twenty-eight known diterpenes, have been isolated from the whole plant of Caryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, X-ray crystal diffraction and mass spectroscopic data, as well as ECD calculations. All compounds were tested for in vitro dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity, with compounds 3, 4, 28, 29, and 40 exhibiting DPP-IV inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 54.2 to 228.9 μM. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 also showed potent activity toward the inhibition of the growth of human cancer cells and 1 can induce apoptosis in Hey and A-549 cells.