The effect of sun-dried raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) on the in vitro composition of the gut microbiota†
Modulation of the human gut microbiota has proven to have beneficial effects on host health. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sun-dried raisins (SR) on the composition of the human gut microbiota. A full model of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes simulated mastication, a dynamic gastric model, a duodenal model and a colonic model of the human large intestine, was used. An increase in the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was observed by plate-counting in response to the addition of either SR or FOS after 8 and 24 h fermentation. A significant decrease in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was observed in SR samples after 8 and 24 h fermentation. FOS resulted in the greatest production of short chain fatty acids. Sun-dried raisins demonstrated considerable potential to promote the colonization and proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the human large intestine and to stimulate the production of organic acids.